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A Novel Radioiodination Reagent for Protein Radiopharmaceuticals with l-Lysine as a Plasma-Stable Metabolizable Linkage To Liberate m-Iodohippuric Acid after Lysosomal Proteolysis

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journal contribution
posted on 01.08.1997, 00:00 by Kouji Wakisaka, Yasushi Arano, Takashi Uezono, Hiromichi Akizawa, Masahiro Ono, Keiichi Kawai, Yoshiro Ohomomo, Morio Nakayama, Hideo Saji
Radiochemical design of polypeptides using metabolizable linkages would be attractive to enhance target-selective localization of radioactivity for diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. However, while use of ester bonds as the linkage allows selective release of the designed radiometabolite from covalently conjugated polypeptides after lysosomal proteolysis in nontarget tissues, low plasma stability of ester bonds causes a decrease in radioactivity levels of the target. In pursuit of new metabolizable linkages that provide stable attachment of radiolabels with polypeptide in plasma while facilitating rapid and selective release of designed radiometabolites of rapid urinary excretion in lysosomes, a new radioiodination reagent with l-lysine as the metabolizable linkage to liberate m-iodohippuric acid (l-HML) was designed and synthesized. Stabilities of the metabolizable linkage in serum and cleavabilities of the linkage in lysosomal proteolysis in hepatic cells were investigated after conjugation of [131I]-l-HML with galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA). For comparison, a radioiodination reagent with an ester bond to release m-iodohippuric acid (MIH) was conjugated with NGA under similar conditions. When incubated in human serum, [131I]-l-HML-NGA liberated less than 3% of the initial radioactivity after 24 h, whereas [125I]MIH-NGA released more than 60% of its radioactivity during the same interval. In biodistribution studies, [131I]-l-HML-NGA demonstrated radioactivity elimination from murine liver at a rate and excretion route similar to [125I]MIH-NGA. Analyses of murine urine after injection of [131I]-l-HML-NGA indicated a single radioactivity peak at fractions identical to those of m-iodohippuric acid. Biodistribution studies of radioiodinated NGAs with d-lysine or cadaverine as the linkages demonstrated a delayed elimination rate from murine liver with significantly higher radioactivity being excreted in the feces at 24 h postinjection. Thus, l-HML is the first reagent that allows stable attachment of radiolabel with polypeptide in serum while facilitating selective release of a radiometabolite with rapid urinary excretion from covalently conjugated polypeptides after lysosomal proteolysis at a rate similar to that of ester bonds. Thus, l-HML is potentially useful for the radioiodination of polypeptides for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.