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A Novel Plasma-Based Bioink Stimulates Cell Proliferation and Differentiation in Bioprinted, Mineralized Constructs

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journal contribution
posted on 05.03.2020, 14:41 by Tilman Ahlfeld, Nieves Cubo-Mateo, Silvia Cometta, Vera Guduric, Corina Vater, Anne Bernhardt, A. Rahul Akkineni, Anja Lode, Michael Gelinsky
Extrusion-based bioprinting, also known as 3D bioplotting, is a powerful tool for the fabrication of tissue equivalents with spatially defined cell distribution. Even though considerable progress has been made in recent years, there is still a lack of bioinks which enable a tissue-like cell response and are plottable at the same time with good shape fidelity. Herein, we report on the development of a bioink which includes fresh frozen plasma from full human blood and thus a donor/patient-specific protein mixture. By blending of the plasma with 3 w/v% alginate and 9 w/v% methylcellulose, a pasty bioink (plasma-alg-mc) was achieved, which could be plotted with high accuracy and furthermore allowed bioplotted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and primary osteoprogenitor cells to spread within the bioink. In a second step, the novel plasma-based bioink was combined with a plottable self-setting calcium phosphate cement (CPC) to fabricate bone-like tissue constructs. The CPC/plasma-alg-mc biphasic constructs revealed open porosity over the entire time of cell culture (35 d), which is crucial for bone tissue engineered grafts. The biphasic structures could be plotted in volumetric and clinically relevant dimensions and complex shapes could be also generated, as demonstrated for a scaphoid bone model. The plasma bioink potentiated that bioplotted MSC were not harmed by the setting process of the CPC. Latest after 7 days, MSC migrated from the hydrogel to the CPC surface, where they proliferated to 20-fold of the initial cell number covering the entire plotted constructs with a dense cell layer. For bioplotted and osteogenically stimulated osteoprogenitor cells, a significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity was observed in CPC/plasma-alg-mc constructs in comparison to plasma-free controls. In conclusion, the novel plasma-alg-mc bioink is a promising new ink for several forms of bioprinted tissue equivalents and especially gainful for the combination with CPC for enhanced, biofabricated bone-like constructs.