A Microwave and Quantum Chemical Study of the Conformational Properties and Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding of 1-Fluorocyclopropanecarboxylic Acid
journal contributionposted on 21.07.2005, 00:00 by Harald Møllendal, Andrei Leonov, Armin de Meijere
The structural and conformational properties of 1-fluorocyclopropanecarboxylic acid have been explored by microwave spectroscopy and a series of ab initio (MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level), density functional theory (B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level), and G3 quantum chemical calculations. Four “stable” conformers, denoted conformers I−IV, were found in the quantum chemical calculations, three of which (conformers I −III) were predicted to be low-energy forms. Conformer I was in all the quantum chemical calculations predicted to have the lowest energy, conformer III to have the second lowest energy, and conformer II to have the third lowest energy. Conformers II and III were calculated to have relatively large dipole moments, while conformer I was predicted to have a small dipole moment. The microwave spectrum was investigated in the 18−62 GHz spectral range. The microwave spectra of conformers II and III were assigned. Conformer I was not assigned presumably because its dipole moment is comparatively small. Conformer II is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between the fluorine atom and the hydrogen atom of the carboxylic acid group. Conformer III has a synperiplanar orientation for the FCCO and HOCO chains of atoms. Its dipole moment is: μa = 3.4(10), μb = 10.1(13), and μc = 0.0 (assumed) and μtot = 10.6(14) × 10-30 C m [3.2(4) D]. Several vibrationally excited states of the lowest torsional mode of each of II and III were also assigned. The hydrogen-bonded conformer II was found to be 2.7(2) kJ/mol less stable than III by relative intensity measurements. Absolute intensity measurements were used to show that the unassigned conformer I is the most abundant form present at a concentration of roughly 65% at room temperature. Conformer I was estimated to be ca. 5.0 kJ/mol more stable than the hydrogen-bonded rotamer (conformer II) and ca. 2.3 kJ/mol more stable than conformer III. The best agreement with the theoretical calculations is found in the MP2 calculations, which predict conformer I to be 5.1 kJ/mol more stable than III and 1.7 kJ/mol more stable than II.