3,5-Diphenylpent-2-enoic Acids as Allosteric Activators of the Protein Kinase PDK1: Structure−Activity Relationships and Thermodynamic Characterization of Binding as Paradigms for PIF-Binding Pocket-Targeting Compounds†PDB code of 2Z with PDK1: 3HRF.
journal contributionposted on 13.08.2009, 00:00 by Adriana Stroba, Francis Schaeffer, Valerie Hindie, Laura Lopez-Garcia, Iris Adrian, Wolfgang Fröhner, Rolf W. Hartmann, Ricardo M. Biondi, Matthias Engel
The modulation of protein kinase activities by low molecular weight compounds is a major goal of current pharmaceutical developments. In this line, important efforts are directed to the development of drugs targeting the conserved ATP binding site. However, there is very little experience on targeting allosteric, regulatory sites, different from the ATP binding site, in protein kinases. Here we describe the synthesis, cell-free activation potency, and calorimetric binding analysis of 3,5-diphenylpent-2-enoic acids and derivatives as allosteric modulators of the phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) catalytic activity. Our SAR results combined with thermodynamic binding analyses revealed both favorable binding enthalpy and entropy and confirmed the PIF-binding pocket of PDK1 as a druggable site. In conclusion, we defined the minimal structural requirements for compounds to bind to the PIF-binding pocket and to act as allosteric modulators and identified two new lead structures (12Z and 13Z) with predominating binding enthalpy.