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15β-Senecioyl-oxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic Acid, a Diterpene Isolated from Baccharis lateralis, as Promising Oral Compound for the Treatment of Schistosomiasis

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posted on 25.11.2020, 17:04 by Deborah P. Sessa, Ana C. Mengarda, Paula E. Simplicio, Guilherme M. Antar, João Henrique G. Lago, Josué de Moraes
Praziquantel is the only available drug to treat schistosomiasis, and therefore, urgent studies must be performed to identify new anthelmintic agents. This study reports the anthelmintic evaluation of two related ent-kaurane diterpenes isolated from aerial parts of Baccharis lateralis (Asteraceae), ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (1) and 15β-senecioyl-oxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (2) against Schistosoma mansoni in vitro and in a murine model of schistosomiasis. Both compounds exhibited in vitro activity with lethal concentration 50% (LC50) values of 26.1 μM (1) and 11.6 μM (2) as well as reduced toxicity against human cell lines, revealing a good selectivity profile, mainly with compound 2 (selectivity index > 10). Compound 2 also decreased egg production and caused morphological alterations in the parasite reproductive system. In mice infected with S. mansoni, oral treatment with compound 2 at 400 mg/kg, the standard dose used in this model of schistosomiasis, caused a significant reduction in a total worm burden of 61.9% (P < 0.01). S. mansoni egg production, a key mechanism for both transmission and pathogenesis, was also markedly reduced. In addition, compound 2 achieved a significant reduction in hepatosplenomegaly. Therefore, the diterpene 15β-senecioyl-oxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (2) has an acceptable cytotoxicity profile and is orally active in a murine schistosomiasis model.

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