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Triazolyl, Imidazolyl, and Carboxylic Acid Moieties in the Design of Molybdenum Trioxide Hybrids: Photophysical and Catalytic Behavior

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journal contribution
posted on 03.04.2017 by Andrey B. Lysenko, Ganna A. Senchyk, Konstantin V. Domasevitch, Merten Kobalz, Harald Krautscheid, Jakub Cichos, Miroslaw Karbowiak, Patrícia Neves, Anabela A. Valente, Isabel S. Gonçalves
Three organic ligands bearing 1,2,4-triazolyl donor moieties, (S)-4-(1-phenylpropyl)-1,2,4-triazole (trethbz), 4-(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)­benzoic acid (trPhCO2H), and 3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-2-(1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)­propionic acid (trhis), were prepared to evaluate their coordination behavior in the development of molybdenum­(VI) oxide organic hybrids. Four compounds, [Mo2O6(trethbz)2]·H2O (1), [Mo4O12(trPhCO2H)2]·0.5H2O (2a), [Mo4O12(trPhCO2H)2]·H2O (2b), and [Mo8O25(trhis)2(trhisH)2]·2H2O (3), were synthesized and characterized. The monofunctional tr-ligand resulted in the formation of a zigzag chain [Mo2O6(trethbz)2] built up from cis-{MoO4N2} octahedra united through common μ2-O vertices. Employing the heterodonor ligand with tr/–CO2H functions afforded either layer or ribbon structures of corner- or edge-sharing {MoO5N} polyhedra (2a or 2b) stapled by tr-links in axial positions, whereas −CO2H groups remained uncoordinated. The presence of the im-heterocycle as an extra function in trhis facilitated formation of zwitterionic molecules with a protonated imidazolium group (imH+) and a negatively charged −CO2 group, whereas the tr-fragment was left neutral. Under the acidic hydrothermal conditions used, the organic ligand binds to molybdenum atoms either through [N–N]-tr or through both [N–N]-tr and μ2-CO2 units, which occur in protonated bidentate or zwitterionic tetradentate forms (trhisH+ and trhis, respectively). This leads to a new zigzag subtopological motif (3) of negatively charged polyoxomolybdate {Mo8O25}n2n consisting of corner- and edge-sharing cis-{MoO4N2} and {MoO6} octahedra, while the tetradentate zwitterrionic trhis species connect these chains into a 2D net. Electronic spectra of the compounds showed optical gaps consistent with semiconducting behavior. The compounds were investigated as epoxidation catalysts via the model reactions of achiral and prochiral olefins (cis-cyclooctene and trans-β-methylstyrene) with tert-butylhydroperoxide. The best-performing catalyst (1) was explored for the epoxidation of other olefins, including biomass-derived methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, and prochiral dl-limonene.