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Topically Applied Chitosan-Coated Poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles Are Active Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Accelerating Lesion Healing and Reducing the Parasitic Load

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posted on 08.05.2019 by Sophia Malli, Sebastien Pomel, Yasmine Ayadi, Claudine Deloménie, Antonio Da Costa, Philippe M. Loiseau, Kawthar Bouchemal
Parenteral administration of amphotericin B-deoxycholate (AmB-DOC) or pentavalent antimonials to cure cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) results in severe adverse reactions, while topically applied antileishmanial drugs are ineffective despite their good tolerance. This work is aimed to investigate whether poly­(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles coated with chitosan (Cs-NPs) could provide intrinsic antileishmanial activity after topical application. In vitro evaluations revealed that nanoparticles were active against the promastigote, axenic amastigote, and intramacrophage forms of Leishmania major. In vivo evaluations after repetitive topical applications on the skin of mice infected with L. major showed that Cs-NPs combined or not with AmB-DOC allowed partial healing of the lesion characterized by histological analyses. The parasitic load of skin specimens collected from mice was significantly reduced compared with that from nontreated mice, as analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Ultrastructure characterizations by electron microscopy of L. major promastigotes after incubation with Cs-NPs showed morphological alterations, including aberrant shape and swelling of mitochondria and parasitic vacuoles.

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