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Thermodynamics of Metal Carbonates and Bicarbonates and Their Hydrates for Mg, Ca, Fe, and Cd Relevant to Mineral Energetics

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journal contribution
posted on 19.02.2020, 18:57 by Yiqin Hu, Monica Vasiliu, K. Sahan Thanthiriwatte, Virgil E. Jackson, Anne M. Chaka, David A. Dixon
The heats of formation of the carbonate, bicarbonate, and bicarbonate/hydroxide metal complexes, including hydrates of Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, and Cd2+, and the oxides, dichlorides, and dihydroxides are predicted from atomization energies using correlated molecular orbital theory at the CCSD­(T) level extrapolated to the complete basis set limit following the Feller–Peterson–Dixon (FPD) approach. Using the calculated gas phase values and the available experimental solid-state values, we predicted the cohesive energies of selective minerals. The gas phase decomposition energies of MO, CO2, and H2O follow the order Mg ≈ Ca > Cd ≈ Fe and correlate with the hardness of the metal +2 ions. Gas phase hydration energies show that the order is Mg > Fe > Ca ≈ Cd. There are a number of bulk hydrated Mg and Ca complexes that occur as minerals but there are few if any for Fe and Cd, suggesting that a number of factors are important in determining the stability of the bulk mineral hydrates. The FPD heats of formation were used to benchmark a range of density functional theory exchange–correlation functionals, including those commonly used in solid-state mineral calculations. None of the functionals provided chemical accuracy agreement (±1 kcal/mol) with the FPD results. The best agreement to the FPD results is predicted for ωB97X and ωB97X-D functionals with an average unsigned error of 10 kcal/mol. The worst functionals are PW91, BP86, and PBE with average unsigned errors of 32–36 kcal/mol.