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Synchrotron Radiation Macrobeam and Microbeam X-ray Diffraction Studies of Interfacial Crystallization of Fats in Water-in-Oil Emulsions

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journal contribution
posted on 03.04.2012 by Paul Wassell, Airi Okamura, Niall W.G. Young, Graham Bonwick, Christopher Smith, Kiyotaka Sato, Satoru Ueno
Using macrobeam and microbeam techniques, we performed synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) analyses of fat crystallization in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion, in combination with DSC and polarized optical microscopic observation. Particular focus was on the crystallization of the fats around water droplets in the W/O emulsion systems using food emulsifiers of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) alone (PGPR emulsion), and PGPR and monobehenoylglycerol (MB) (PGPR+MB emulsion). We obtained the following results: (1) macrobeam SR-XRD confirmed that adding MB promoted fat crystallization during cooling, (2) microbeam SR-XRD indicated that the lamellar planes of fat crystals near the water and oil interfaces are arranged almost parallel to the interface planes in both PGPR emulsion and PGPR+MB emulsion, and (3) adding MB resulted in the formation of tiny fat crystals because it promoted crystallization, which occurred both in the bulk oil phase and at the W/O interfaces. The present study is the first to apply microbeam SR-XRD to observe the microscopic features of fat crystallization in W/O emulsion, following fat crystallization in the oil droplets in the oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion (Arima, S.; Ueno, S.; Ogawa, A.; Sato, K. Langmuir 2009, 25, 9777–9784).