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Probing the Intrinsic Properties of Exfoliated Graphene: Raman Spectroscopy of Free-Standing Monolayers

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journal contribution
posted on 14.01.2009 by Stéphane Berciaud, Sunmin Ryu, Louis E. Brus, Tony F. Heinz
The properties of pristine, free-standing graphene monolayers prepared by mechanical exfoliation of graphite are investigated. The graphene monolayers, suspended over open trenches, are examined by means of spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy of the G-, D-, and 2D-phonon modes. The G-mode phonons exhibit reduced energies (1580 cm−1) and increased widths (14 cm−1) compared to the response of graphene monolayers supported on the SiO2-covered substrate. From analysis of the G-mode Raman spectra, we deduce that the free-standing graphene monolayers are essentially undoped, with an upper bound of 2 × 1011 cm−2 for the residual carrier concentration. On the supported regions, significantly higher and spatially inhomogeneous doping is observed. The free-standing graphene monolayers show little local disorder, based on the very weak Raman D-mode response. The two-phonon 2D mode of the free-standing graphene monolayers is downshifted in frequency compared to that of the supported region of the samples and exhibits a narrowed, positively skewed line shape.