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Potent Acetylcholinesterase Selective and Reversible Homodimeric Agent Based on Tacrine for Theranostics

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journal contribution
posted on 06.05.2019, 00:00 by Virendra Kumar Meena, Shubhra Chaturvedi, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Anil Kumar Mishra, Puja Panwar Hazari
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been an important biomarker for diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), due to reduction in AChE activity in post-mortem brains of AD patients. A potent, selective, and reversible homodimeric inhibitor of AChE, 5-amino-N1,N3-bis­(2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9-ylamino)­ethyl)­isophthalamide (compound 4), was synthesized by using 9-alkyl­(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine) pharmacophore with appended functionality. In the present work, we report the synthesis of this bivalent inhibitor of AChE. The homodimeric ligand structure was designed and studied with molecular docking tools, which revealed its high affinity and interactions with active site gorge of AChE, which includes both catalytic active site (CAS) and peripheral active site (PAS). The IC50 value of this bivalent inhibitor for AChE and BuChE were 0.54 ± 0.06 and 32.49 ± 1.2 nM, respectively, with a selectivity ratio of 60.16 toward AChE. The designed ligand also showed potent inhibitory properties on PAS activity as well as on AChE-induced amyloid aggregation with low cytotoxicity on rat hippocampal neurons. The AFM images further corroborated the Aβ1–42 aggregation inhibition by compound 4 to an extent similar to bis(7)-tacrine. Moreover, the bivalent ligand was also proven to be of neurogenic potential due to its ability to induce S-phase post-treatment in rat hippocampal neuronal cells. On the basis of initial results, the agent could be further explored for its theranostic value clinically, which gives the possibility of tracing the AChE levels by molecular imaging techniques in correlation with progression of neurocognitive disorders like AD for better therapy response and patient management.