Photochemically Knocking Out Glutamate Receptors in Vivo
journal contributionposted on 03.11.2004 by James J. Chambers, Hiroaki Gouda, David M. Young, Irwin D. Kuntz, Pamela M. England
Any type of content formally published in an academic journal, usually following a peer-review process.
AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isooxazole) receptors, a major subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), mediate the majority of the fast communication between neurons, and the activity-dependent trafficking of AMPA receptors at synapses plays a role in mammalian learning and memory. Here we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a photoreactive AMPA receptor antagonist that provides a means of “knocking out” AMPA receptors present on the surface of cells. The antagonist, 6-azido-7-nitro-1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (ANQX), was designed by introducing a photoreactive azido group onto a quinoxalinedione inhibitor scaffold. Computational docking of ANQX to the AMPA receptor ligand-binding core predicted efficient binding to AMPA receptors. Glutamate-evoked currents were reversibly blocked at micromolar ANQX concentrations prior to photolysis and irreversibly blocked following photolysis. ANQX provides a means of directly evaluating the trafficking of native AMPA receptors with unparalleled spatiotemporal resolution.