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Perturbations in Factor XIII Resulting from Activation and Inhibition Examined by Solution Based Methods and Detected by MALDI-TOF MS

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journal contribution
posted on 04.09.2007 by T. Michael Sabo, P. Bradley Brasher, Muriel C. Maurer
Factor XIII can be activated proteolytically by thrombin cleavage of the activation peptide or non-proteolytically by exposure to 50 mM Ca2+. The resultant transglutaminase cross-links Q and K residues within the noncovalently associated fibrin clot. Hydrogen deuterium exchange coupled with MALDI-TOF MS demonstrated that FXIII activation protects regions within the β sandwich (98−104) and the β barrel 1 (526−546) from deuterium, while exposing the potential Q substrate recognition site (220−230) to deuteration (Turner, B. T., Jr., and Maurer, M. C. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 7947−7954). Chemical modification indicated the availability of several residues upon activation including K73, K221, C314, and C409 (Turner, B. T., Jr., Sabo, T. M., Wilding, D., and Maurer, M. C. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 9755−9765). In the current work, activations of FXIII by IIa and by Ca2+ as well as FXIIIa inhibition by the K9 DON peptide (with the Q isostere 6-diazo-5-oxo-norleucine) and iodoacetamide were further examined. New findings unique for FXIIIaIIa included alkylation of C238 and C327, acetylation of K68, and increased proteolysis of 207−214. By contrast, FXIIIaCa led to increased proteolysis of 73−85 and 104−125 and to a loss of K129 acetylation. The FXIIIa inhibitors K9 DON and iodoacetamide both promoted even greater protection from deuteration for the β sandwich (98−104) and β barrel 1 (526−546). Interestingly, only K9 DON was able to block modification of catalytic core C409 near the dimer interface. The solution based approaches reveal that activation and inhibition lead to local and long range effects to FXIII(a) and that many are influenced by Ca2+ binding. Important glimpses are being provided on FXIIIa allostery and the presence of putative FXIIIa exosites.