Partial Hydrogenation of 1,3-Butadiene on Hydrogen-Precovered Pd(110) in the Balance of π-Bonded C4 Hydrocarbon Reactions
The hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of C4 hydrocarbon molecules (1,3-butadiene, 1-butene, trans-2-butene, cis-2-butene, and n-butane) on the hydrogen-precovered Pd(110) surface have been investigated by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). 1,3-Butadiene was found to be adsorbed molecularly on the surface below 350 K. Further heating of the surface resulted in decomposition, forming hydrocarbons at 350 K and finally the graphite layer at 550 K. The butene isomers and n-butane adsorbed on the surface were, however, relatively unstable compared with 1,3-butadiene when heated. Some of the adsorbed butenes were desorbed, and the species that remained on the surface were dehydrogenated to 1,3-butadiene between 150 and 250 K. n-Butane on the surface showed similar reaction behavior except for the lower dehydrogenation and desorption temperature. Our findings indicate that the dehydrogenations of π-bonded C4 hydrocarbons on the Pd surface show significantly different pathways compared with those of the σ-bonded C4 hydrocarbon on Pt and Ru surfaces. Here, we discuss the selective partial hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene on hydrogen-precovered Pd(110) in terms of the reactivity of the butenes and butanes.