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Nucleation and Growth Control of HC(NH2)2PbI3 for Planar Perovskite Solar Cell

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journal contribution
posted on 09.05.2016 by Jincheol Kim, Jae S. Yun, Xiaoming Wen, Arman Mahboubi Soufiani, Cho Fai Jonathan Lau, Benjamin Wilkinson, Jan Seidel, Martin A. Green, Shujuan Huang, Anita W. Y. Ho-Baillie
HC­(NH2)2PbI3 perovskite solar cells have emerged as a promising alternative to CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells due to their better thermal stability and lower bandgap. In this work, we have demonstrated a reliable fabrication technique for HC­(NH2)2PbI3 planar perovskite solar cells by controlling nucleation and crystallization processes of the perovskite layer through a combination of gas-assisted spin coating and the addition of HI additive in the perovskite precursor. A narrow distribution of power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) can be achieved with an average of 13% with negligible hysteresis when measured at a scanning rate of 0.1 V/s. The best performance device has a PCE of 16.0%. It is shown that by using optimized conditions we can consistently form dense, uniform, pinhole-free good crystalline, lead-iodide-impurities-free HC­(NH2)2PbI3 film that has been comprehensively characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Kelvin probe force microscopy, photoluminescence, and electroluminescence in this work.