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Interaction of Alpha-Synuclein and Its Mutants with Rigid Lipid Vesicle Mimics of Varying Surface Curvature

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journal contribution
posted on 22.07.2020, 14:06 by Sophia M. McClain, Adedolapo M. Ojoawo, Wayne Lin, Chad M. Rienstra, Catherine J. Murphy
Abnormal aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn), an intrinsically disordered neuronal protein, is strongly implicated in the development of Parkinson’s disease. Efforts to better understand α-syn’s native function and its pathogenic role in neurodegeneration have revealed that the protein interacts with anionic lipid vesicles via adoption of an amphipathic α-helical structure; however, the ability of α-syn to remodel lipid membranes has made it difficult to decipher the role of vesicle surface curvature in protein binding behavior. In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which mimic bilayer vesicle architecture, were synthesized in order to conduct a systematic investigation into the binding interaction of α-syn and two of its mutants (A30P and E46K) with rigid lipid vesicle mimics of defined surface curvature. By incorporating a rigid AuNP core (∼10–100 nm), the ability of α-syn to remodel the vesicle mimics was removed and their surface curvature could be fixed. Proteomics studies showed that, upon binding of free α-syn to the surface of SDS-AuNPs, the N-terminus of α-syn became less solvent accessible, whereas its C-terminus became more accessible. Interestingly, α-syn’s non-amyloid-β component (NAC) region also exhibited increased solvent accessibility, suggesting that α-syn bound to rigid vesicle-like structures could possess heightened aggregation propensity and therefore pathogenicity. Additionally, both the A30P and E46K mutations were found to adopt distinct binding modes on the mimics’ surface. In contrast with previous reports, similar binding affinities were observed for WT, A30P, and E46K α-syn toward SDS-AuNPs of all sizes, indicating the potential importance of vesicle deformability in determining α-syn binding behavior.