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GSH-Mediated S-Transarylation of a Quinone Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Conjugate

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journal contribution
posted on 21.11.2011 by Takashi Miura, Hidenao Kakehashi, Yasuhiro Shinkai, Yuko Egara, Reiko Hirose, Arthur K. Cho, Yoshito Kumagai
Many cellular proteins with reactive thiols form covalent bonds with electrophiles, thereby modifying their structures and activities. Here, we describe the recovery of a glycolytic protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), from such an electrophilic attack by 1,2-napthoquinone (1,2-NQ). GAPDH readily formed a covalent bond with 1,2-NQ through Cys152 at a low concentration (0.2 μM) in a cell-free system, but when human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to this quinone at 20 μM, only minimal binding was observed although extensive binding to numerous other cellular proteins occurred. Depletion of cellular glutathione (GSH) with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in some covalent modification of cellular GAPDH by 1,2-NQ and a significant reduction of GAPDH activity in the cells. Incubation of native, but not boiled, human GAPDH that had been modified by 1,2-NQ with GSH resulted in a concentration-dependent removal of 1,2-NQ from the GAPDH conjugate, accompanied by partial recovery of lost catalytic activity and formation of a 1,2-NQ-GSH adduct (1,2-NQ-SG). While GAPDH is recognized as a multifunctional protein, our results show that GAPDH also has a unique ability to recover from electrophilic modification by 1,2-NQ through a GSH-dependent S-transarylation reaction.