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Fabrication, Testing, and Simulation of All-Solid-State Three-Dimensional Li-Ion Batteries

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journal contribution
posted on 10.11.2016 by A. Alec Talin, Dmitry Ruzmetov, Andrei Kolmakov, Kim McKelvey, Nicholas Ware, Farid El Gabaly, Bruce Dunn, Henry S. White
Demonstration of three-dimensional all-solid-state Li-ion batteries (3D SSLIBs) has been a long-standing goal for numerous researchers in the battery community interested in developing high power and high areal energy density storage solutions for a variety of applications. Ideally, the 3D geometry maximizes the volume of active material per unit area, while keeping its thickness small to allow for fast Li diffusion. In this paper, we describe experimental testing and simulation of 3D SSLIBs fabricated using materials and thin-film deposition methods compatible with semiconductor device processing. These 3D SSLIBs consist of Si microcolumns onto which the battery layers are sequentially deposited using physical vapor deposition. The power performance of the 3D SSLIBs lags significantly behind that of similarly prepared planar SSLIBs. Analysis of the experimental results using finite element modeling indicates that the origin of the poor power performance is the structural inhomogeneity of the 3D SSLIB, coupled with low electrolyte ionic conductivity and diffusion rate in the cathode, which lead to highly nonuniform internal current density distribution and poor cathode utilization.