Carbon Capture and Mineralization in Singapore: Preliminary Environmental Impacts and Costs via LCA
journal contributionposted on 05.10.2011 by Hsien H. Khoo, Paul N. Sharratt, Jie Bu, Tze Y. Yeo, Armando Borgna, James G. Highfield, Thomas G. Björklöf, Ron Zevenhoven
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The total energy and CO2 emissions of a mineral carbonation process are investigated using a life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA investigation takes into account the energy and greenhouse gas emissions from mineral mining operations and shipment from Australia, the recovery of CO2 based on amine scrubbing technology (if required), and two possible options for mineral carbonation in Singapore where the final carbonate products have potential use in the construction industry and as land reclamation material. Four scenarios were investigated – the first two with CO2 recovery via amine scrubbing prior to mineralization and the last two with direct mineralization of CO2 from the NGCC flue gas. The most promising options turned out to be scenarios 3 and 4 – these cases result in 215 and 154 kg of CO2 avoided per 1 MWh, respectively. Scenario 1 results in 90 kg of CO2 avoided per 1 MWh. The life cycle costing results are 70.6–80.8 USD/tonne CO2 avoided for scenario 3 and 119.9–159.1 USD/tonne CO2 avoided for scenario 4.