jp7b10515_si_001.pdf (1001.07 kB)

Atomic-Scale Structure of the Hematite α‑Fe2O3(11̅02) “R-Cut” Surface

Download (1001.07 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 08.12.2017 by Florian Kraushofer, Zdenek Jakub, Magdalena Bichler, Jan Hulva, Peter Drmota, Michael Weinold, Michael Schmid, Martin Setvin, Ulrike Diebold, Peter Blaha, Gareth S. Parkinson
The α-Fe2O3(11̅02) surface (also known as the hematite r-cut or (012) surface) was studied using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM), and ab initio density functional theory (DFT)+U calculations. Two surface structures are stable under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions; a stoichiometric (1 × 1) surface can be prepared by annealing at 450 °C in ≈10–6 mbar O2, and a reduced (2 × 1) reconstruction is formed by UHV annealing at 540 °C. The (1 × 1) surface is close to an ideal bulk termination, and the undercoordinated surface Fe atoms reduce the surface bandgap by ≈0.2 eV with respect to the bulk. The work function is measured to be 5.7 ± 0.2 eV, and the VBM is located 1.5 ± 0.1 eV below EF. The images obtained from the (2 × 1) reconstruction cannot be reconciled with previously proposed models, and a new “alternating trench” structure is proposed based on an ordered removal of lattice oxygen atoms. DFT+U calculations show that this surface is favored in reducing conditions and that 4-fold-coordinated Fe2+ cations at the surface introduce gap states approximately 1 eV below EF. The work function on the (2 × 1) termination is 5.4 ± 0.2 eV.