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An Intercalated and Thermally Stable FAPY Adduct of Aflatoxin B1 in a DNA Duplex:  Structural Refinement from 1H NMR

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journal contribution
posted on 11.03.1998 by Hui Mao, Zhengwu Deng, Fang Wang, Thomas M. Harris, Michael P. Stone
The structure of a formamidopyrimidine (FAPY) adduct arising from imidazole ring opening of the initially formed trans-8,9-dihydro-8-(N7-guanyl)-9-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 adduct under basic conditions and positioned in the 5‘-d(CTATFAPYGATTCA)-3‘•5‘-d(TGAATCATAG)-3‘ oligodeoxynucleotide was determined. The FAPY adduct may be a major progenitor of aflatoxin B1-induced mutations in DNA. The freshly prepared sample showed biphasic melting, with transitions at 28 and 56 °C. NMR initially showed multiple subspectra. Over a period of several days at 4 °C, the sample converted to a single species with a Tm of 56 °C, 15 °C greater than the unmodified duplex. The deoxyribose was in the β configuration about the anomeric carbon, evidenced by NOEs between FAPYG5 H3‘, H2‘, H2‘ ‘, and H1‘. FAPY formation resulted in the loss of the guanine H8 proton, and the introduction of the formyl proton, which showed NOEs to FAPYG5 H1‘ and A6 N6Ha. A total of 31 NOEs from AFB1 to DNA protons were observed, mostly to the 5‘-neighboring base, T4 in the modified strand. Sequential NOEs were interrupted between T4 and FAPYG5 in the modified strand, between C16 and A17 in the complementary strand, and between T4 N3H and FAPYG5 N1H. An NOE between FAPYG5 N1H and C16 N4H showed intact hydrogen bonding at FAPYG5•C16. Upfield chemical shifts were observed for T4 H6 and A17 H8. Molecular dynamics calculations converged with pairwise rmsd differences of <0.9 Å. The sixth root residual was 8.7 × 10-2. The AFB1 moiety intercalated from the major groove between FAPYG5 and T4•A17, and stacked with T4 and FAPYG5 and partially stacked with A17. The base step between T4•A17 and FAPYG5•C16 was increased from 3.4 to 7 Å. The duplex unwound by about 15°. The FAPY formyl group was positioned to form a hydrogen bond with A6 N6Ha. Strong stacking involving the AFB1 moiety, and this hydrogen bond explains the thermal stabilization of four base pairs by this adduct, and may be a significant factor in its processing.