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Topology of the Retinal Cone NCKX2 Na/Ca−K Exchanger

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posted on 04.02.2003, 00:00 by Tashi G. Kinjo, Robert T. Szerencsei, Robert J. Winkfein, KyeongJin Kang, Paul P. M. Schnetkamp
The Na/Ca−K exchanger (NCKX) is a polytopic membrane protein that plays a critical role in Ca2+ homeostasis in retinal rod and cone photoreceptors. The NCKX1 isoform is found in rods, while the NCKX2 isoform is found in cones, in retinal ganglion cells, and in various parts of the brain. The topology of the Na/Ca−K exchanger is thought to consist of two large hydrophilic loops and two sets of transmembrane spanning segments (TMs). The first large hydrophilic loop is located extracellularly at the N-terminus; the other is cytoplasmic and separates the two sets of TMs. The TMs consist of either five and five membrane spanning helices or five and six membrane spanning helices, depending upon the predictive algorithm used. Little specific information is yet available on the orientation of the various membrane spanning helices and the localization of the short loops connecting these helices. In this study, we have determined which of the connecting loops are exposed to the extracellular milieu using two different methods:  accessibility of substituted cysteine residues and insertion of N-glycosylation sites. The two methods resulted in a consistent NCKX topology in which the two sets of TMs each contain five membrane spanning helices. Our new model places what was previously membrane spanning helix six in the cytoplasm, which places the C-terminus on the extracellular surface. Surprisingly, this NCKX topology model is different from the current NCX topology model with respect to the C-terminal three membrane helices.