American Chemical Society
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Proteomic Characterization of Engineered Nanomaterial–Protein Interactions in Relation to Surface Reactivity

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posted on 2011-06-28, 00:00 authored by Jukka Sund, Harri Alenius, Minnamari Vippola, Kai Savolainen, Anne Puustinen
Adsorption of proteins onto an engineered nanoparticle surface happens immediately after particles come in contact with a biological fluid. However, at the moment very little is known about the mechanisms of interactions between biomolecules and nanomaterials. In this study, eleven thoroughly characterized materials were first investigated in vitro for their ability to enter human lung epithelial cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages. All tested materials were taken up by primary macrophages and epithelial cells. Some of the engineered nanomaterials (ENM) were found in the cytoplasm. Large quantitative and qualitative variation in the binding efficiencies to cellular proteins was observed between different tested nanoparticles. Pulmonary surfactant components significantly reduced the overall protein adsorption on the surface of ENMs. Fibrinogen chains were attached to all materials after exposure to plasma proteins. Common ENM-bound cytoplasmic protein identifications were peroxiredoxin 1, annexin A2, and several ribosomal and cytoskeletal proteins. The underlying mechanism of the ENM-plasma protein interaction may diverge from that of cell lysate proteins, as the binding efficiency to cell lysate proteins appears to depend on the characteristics of the ENM surface, whereas the adsorbed plasma proteins are involved in particle phagocytosis and seem to cover ENMs independently of the their surface properties. Identification of the composition of the nanomaterial–protein complex is crucial for understanding of the uptake mechanisms, biodistribution, and clearance of ENMs, knowledge which is required for safety evaluation and biomedical applications of these materials.