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Two Methods for Direct ortho-Arylation of Benzoic Acids

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posted on 15.08.2007, 00:00 by Hendrich A. Chiong, Quynh-Nhu Pham, Olafs Daugulis
Two new palladium-catalyzed methods for the direct ortho-arylation of free benzoic acids have been developed. The first method employs stoichiometric silver acetate for iodide removal, aryl iodide as the coupling partner, and acetic acid solvent. This method is applicable to the arylation of electron-rich to moderately electron-poor benzoic acids and tolerates chloride and bromide substituents on both coupling partners. The second method involves the use of aryl chloride, cesium carbonate base, n-butyl-di-1-adamantylphosphine ligand, and DMF solvent and is suitable for both electron-rich and electron-poor benzoic acids. Mechanistic studies of the second method point to the heterolytic C−H bond cleavage as the rate-determining step.