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Time Dependent Structural Evolution of Porous Organic Cage CC3

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posted on 16.01.2018, 00:00 by Jolie Lucero, Sameh K. Elsaidi, Ryther Anderson, Ting Wu, Diego A. Gómez-Gualdrón, Praveen K. Thallapally, Moises A. Carreon
Herein we followed the structural evolution of a prototypical type of porous organic cage, CC3, as a function of synthesis time. Three distinctive crystal formation stages were identified: at short synthesis times, a rapid crystal growth stage in which amorphous agglomerates transformed into larger irregular particles was observed. At intermediate synthesis times, a decrease in crystal size over time was observed presumably due to crystal fragmentation, redissolution, and/or homogeneous nucleation. Finally, at longer synthesis times, a regrowth process was observed in which particles coalesced through Ostwald ripening leading to a continuous increase in crystal size. Molecular simulation studies, based on the construction of in silico CC3 models and simulation of XRD patterns and nitrogen isotherms, confirm the samples at different synthesis times to be a mixture of CC3α and CC3-amorphous phases. The CC3α phase is found to contract at different synthesis times, and the amorphous phase is found to essentially disappear at the longest synthesis time. Nitrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption properties of these CC3 phases were evaluated, and were highly dependent on synthesis time.