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The Biosynthetic Landscape of Triceptides Reveals Radical SAM Enzymes That Catalyze Cyclophane Formation on Tyr- and His-Containing Motifs

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posted on 2022-06-21, 20:15 authored by Ryosuke Sugiyama, Angelica Faith L. Suarez, Yohei Morishita, Thi Quynh Ngoc Nguyen, Yi Wei Tooh, Muhammad Nur Hadi Bin Roslan, Justin Lo Choy, Qi Su, Wei Yang Goh, Gregory Adrian Gunawan, Fong Tian Wong, Brandon I. Morinaka
Peptide-derived cyclophanes inhabit a unique niche in the chemical space of macrocyclic peptides with several examples of pharmaceutical importance. Although both synthetic and biocatalytic methods are available for constructing these macrocycles, versatile (bio)­catalysts able to incorporate a variety of amino acids that compose the macrocycle would be useful for the creation of diverse peptide cyclophanes. In this report, we synergized the use of bioinformatic tools to map the biosynthetic landscape of radical SAM enzymes (3-CyFEs) that catalyze three-residue cyclophane formation in the biosynthesis of a new family of RiPP natural products, the triceptides. This analysis revealed 3940 (3113 unique) putative precursor sequences predicted to be modified by 3-CyFEs. Several uncharacterized maturase systems were identified that encode unique precursor types. Functional studies were carried out in vivo in Escherichia coli to identify modified precursors containing His and Tyr residues. NMR analysis of the products revealed that Tyr and His can also be incorporated into cyclophane macrocycles by 3-CyFEs. Collectively, all aromatic amino acids can be incorporated by 3-CyFEs, and the cyclophane formation strictly occurs via a C­(sp2)–C­(sp3) cross-link between the (hetero)­aromatic ring to Cβ. In addition to 3-CyFEs, we functionally validated an Fe­(II)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent hydroxylase, resulting in β-hydroxylated residues within the cyclophane rings. This study reveals the potential breadth of triceptide precursors and a systematic approach for studying these enzymes to broaden the diversity of peptide macrocycles.

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