Temporal Trends in Exposures to Six Phthalates from Biomonitoring Data: Implications for Cumulative Risk
datasetposted on 2018-10-01, 00:00 authored by Jeanette M. Reyes, Paul S. Price
Phthalates are used in a wide range of consumer goods, resulting in exposures to specific phthalates that vary over time in accordance with changes in product use and how phthalates are utilized. We investigated trends in estimates of daily intake dose and several cumulative risk metrics, including the Hazard Quotient (HQ), Hazard Index (HI), and Maximum Cumulative Ratio (MCR) for six phthalates from 2005 to 2014 using metabolite biomonitoring data collected from spot urine samples under the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Over this period, there was a 2.2-fold decrease in the mean HI (0.34 to 0.15) and a 7.2-fold decrease in the percentage of participants with an HI > 1 (5.7% to 0.8%), indicating an overall decrease in combined exposure to these phthalates. Children (aged 6–11 years) had higher mean HI values than either adolescents (aged 12–19 years) or adults (aged 20+ years) during this period. MCR values were generally low and inversely correlated with HI. This indicated that a single phthalate usually drove the hazards for highly exposed individuals. However, the average value of MCR increased 1.2-fold (1.7–2.1) over this period indicating an increasing need to consider exposures to multiple phthalates in this group.