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Synthesis and Anticancer Activity of [RuCl26‑arene)(aroylthiourea)] ComplexesHigh Activity against the Human Neuroblastoma (IMR-32) Cancer Cell Line

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posted on 04.04.2019, 08:14 authored by Srividya Swaminathan, Jebiti Haribabu, Naveen Kumar Kalagatur, Ramaiah Konakanchi, Nithya Balakrishnan, Nattamai Bhuvanesh, Ramasamy Karvembu
Eight new organometallic Ru­(II)–arene complexes of the type [RuCl26-arene)­(η1-S-aroylthiourea)] (arene = p-cymene or benzene) were synthesized in order to evaluate the effect of the arene moiety and the substituent of the aroylthiourea ligand on the cytotoxicity of the complexes. The ligands (L1 and L2) and complexes (1–8) were characterized using analytical and spectroscopic (UV–visible, infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass) methods. The structure of the ligands (L1 and L2) and complexes (1 and 3–6) was obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The cytotoxicity of the complexes was evaluated against four different cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (breast), COLO 205 (colon), A549 (lung), and IMR-32 (neuroblastoma). All the complexes showed good cytotoxicity and the highest was in the IMR-32 cell line, which articulates the specificity of these complexes toward the IMR-32 cancer cell line. The complexes 5, 7, and 8 exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity in the entire cancer cell lines tested, which was comparable with the standard drug, cisplatin. The anticancer mechanism of the complexes 3 and 7 in IMR-32 cells was evaluated by bright-field microscopy, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA damage, and caspase-3 analyses. The cells treated with the complexes showed upregulated caspase-3 compared to the control, and it was found that ROS and MMP were dose-dependent on analysis. Also, bright-field microscopy and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining have correspondingly shown cellular membrane blebbing and DNA damage, which were morphological hallmarks of apoptosis. The study concluded that the complexes promoted the oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic death of the cancer cells through the generation of intracellular ROS, depletion of MMP, and damage of the nuclear material.

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