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Synthesis, Structure, and Inclusion Capabilities of Trehalose-Based Cyclodextrin Analogues (Cyclotrehalans)

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posted on 18.04.2008, 00:00 by David Rodríguez-Lucena, Juan M. Benito, Eleuterio Álvarez, Carlos Jaime, Javier Perez-Miron, Carmen Ortiz Mellet, José M. García Fernández
Concise and efficient strategies toward the synthesis of D2h- and D3h-symmetric cyclodextrin analogues alternating α,α‘-trehalose disaccharide subunits and pseudoamide segments (cyclotrehalans, CTs) are reported. The conformational properties of these cyclooligosaccharides are governed by the rigidity of the α,α‘-trehalose disaccharide repeating unit and the partial double-bond character of the N−(CX) linkages. In contrast to the typical concave-shaped cavity of cyclodextrins (CDs), CTs feature a convex-shaped hydrophobic cavity in which the β-face of the monosaccharide subunits is oriented toward the inner side, as supported by NMR and modeling (molecular mechanics and dynamics) studies. In the case of cyclodimeric CTs (CT2s), the existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds results in collapsed cavities, too small to allow the formation of inclusion complexes with organic molecules. Cyclotrimeric CTs (CT3s) display cavity sizes that are intermediate between those of αCD and βCD, ideally suited for the complexation of complementary guests with ternary symmetry such as adamantane 1-carboxylate (AC). The higher flexibility of the pseudoamide bridges as compared with classical glycosidic linkages endow these glyconanocavities with some conformational adaptability properties, making them better suited than CDs for complexation of angular guests, as seen from comparative inclusion capability experiments against the fluorescent probes 6-p-toluidinonaphthalene-2-sulfonate (TNS; linear) and 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate (ANS; angular).