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Synthesis, Characterization, and Fluorescence Behavior of Twisted and Planar B2N2-Quaterphenyl Analogues

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posted on 06.07.2007, 00:00 authored by Cory A. Jaska, Warren E. Piers, Robert McDonald, Masood Parvez
A series of planar and twisted heteroaromatic quaterphenyl analogues containing BN ring linkages has been synthesized using primarily difunctional Lewis acidic diborabiphenyl moieties as molecular cores. Crystal structure analyses indicated the presence of large twist angles between adjacent aromatic rings in 1 and 3, which were also observed to possess nonfluorescent behavior due to a lack of molecular rigidity and insufficient BN character in the excited state. In contrast, the incorporation of one or two bridging ethylene groups between the adjacent rings (installed via an ethynyl cycloisomerization) was found to afford planar phenanthrene or pyrene moieties, which resulted in weak fluorescence behavior (ΦF = 0.02−0.16) for the n-Bu and Ph derivatives 512. Emission colors ranged from green (λem = 521 nm) to red (λem = 630 nm) and depended primarily on the conformation (2,2‘- vs 4,4‘-), the extent of chromophore conjugation (phenanthrene vs pyrene), and the type of exocyclic substituent present (n-Bu vs Ph). Communication between the two phenanthrene or pyrene moieties was observed in some cases, which was characterized by bathochromically shifted emission bands relative to that of monomeric phenanthrene or pyrene species. Unique excited-state dimer (excimer) fluorescence was observed for the 2,2‘-isomer 8, which was characterized by broad, low-energy emission bands bathochromically shifted from that of the corresponding monomer.