American Chemical Society
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Synthesis, Characterization, and Electron-Transfer Processes in Indium Ferrocenyl-Containing Porphyrins and Their Fullerene Adducts

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posted on 2013-08-19, 00:00 authored by Samantha J. Dammer, Pavlo V. Solntsev, Jared R. Sabin, Victor N. Nemykin
Three new indium­(III) tetra- and penta­(ferrocenyl)-substituted porphyrins of the general formula XInTFcP [X = Cl, OH, or Fc; TFcP = 5,10,15,20-tetraferrocenylporphyrin­(2-); Fc = ferrocene] have been prepared and characterized by UV–vis, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), 1H, 13C, 2D, and variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. Molecular structures of the ClInTFcP, FcInTFcP, and FcInTFcP@4C60 complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography with the last compound being not only the first example of a C60 adduct to the organometallic porphyrins but also the first structure in which organometallic porphyrin antennas intercalated into four electron-transfer channels. The electronic structures and relative energies of individual atropisomers, as well as prospective electron-transfer properties of fullerene adducts of XInTFcP complexes, were investigated by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) approach. Redox properties of XInTFcP complexes were investigated using electrochemical (CV and DPV), spectroelectrochemical, and chemical oxidation approaches. Electrochemical experiments conducted in low-polarity solvent using noncoordinating electrolyte were crucial for the sequential oxidation of ferrocene substituents in XInTFcP compounds. In agreement with DFT calculations, the axial ferrocene ligand in FcInTFcP, with direct In–C σ-bond has a 240 mV lower oxidation potential compared to the first oxidation potential for equatorial ferrocene substituents connected to the porphyrin core. The first equatorial ferrocene oxidation process in all XInTFcP complexes is separated by at least 150 mV from the next three ferrocene based oxidations. The second, third, and fourth redox processes in the ferrocene region are more closely spaced. The addition of the bulky axial ferrocene ligand results in significantly larger rotational barriers for equatorial ferrocene substituents in FcInTFcP compared to the other complexes and leads to better defined redox waves in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments. Mixed-valence compounds of the general formula [XInTFcP]n+ (n = 1, 2) were observed and characterized by spectroelectrochemical and chemical oxidation approaches. In all cases, the presence of the intense intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) bands associated with the oxidation of a single equatorial ferrocene substituent were detected in the NIR region confirming the presence of the iron-based mixed-valence species and suggesting long-range metal–metal coupling in the target systems. The resulting data from the mixed-valence [XInTFcP]n+ (n = 1, 2) complexes matched very closely to the previously reported MTFcP and metal-free poly­(ferrocenyl)­porphyrins and were assigned as Robin and Day Class II mixed-valence compounds.