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Substitution Reactions at Tetracoordinate Boron: Synthesis of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Boranes with Boron−Heteroatom Bonds

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posted on 27.10.2010, 00:00 by Andrey Solovyev, Qianli Chu, Steven J. Geib, Louis Fensterbank, Max Malacria, Emmanuel Lacôte, Dennis P. Curran
Boryl halide, carboxylate and sulfonate complexes of 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (dipp-Imd-BH2X, X = halide or sulfonate) have been prepared from the parent borane dipp-Imd-BH3 by (1) substitution reactions with R−X (X = halide or sulfonate), (2) reactions with electrophiles (like I2 or NIS), or (3) acid/base reactions with HX (provided that HX has a pKa of about 2 or less). Dipp-Imd-BH2I is most conveniently prepared by reaction with diiodine while dipp-Imd-BH2OTf is best prepared by reaction with triflic acid. These and other less reactive complexes behave as electrophiles and can be substituted by a wide range of heteroatom nucleophiles including halides, thiolates and other sulfur-based nucleophiles, isocyanate, azide, nitrite, and cyanide. The resulting products are remarkably stable, and many have been characterized by X-ray crystallography. Several are members of very rare classes of functionalized boron compounds (boron azide, nitro compound, nitrous ester, etc.).