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Studies toward the Synthesis of 4-(2-R-ethyl)amino-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-imidazoline 1-Oxyls. Nucleophilic Substitution of Bromide in the N-Alkyl Chain of the 1,2,4-Oxadiazol-2-one Precursor

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posted on 18.01.2008, 00:00 by Julya F. Polienko, Thomas Schanding, Yury V. Gatilov, Igor A. Grigor'ev, Maxim A. Voinov
A synthetic approach to access the new nitroxides of the amidine type exhibiting pH-dependent EPR spectra through substitution of a halide in the exo-N-halogenoalkyl chain of 1-(2-bromoethyl)-6-oxyl-5,5,7,7-tetramethyltetrahydroimidazo[1,5-b][1,2,4]oxadiazol-2-one is reported. In this approach, an oxycarbonyl moiety of the oxadiazolone heterocycle plays the role of a “protecting group” for the amidine functionality. A nucleophilic cleavage of the oxadiazolone heterocycle under mild nonbasic conditions, applicable to substrates bearing substituents vulnerable to attack by strong basic nucleophiles, is elaborated. The approach allows for the new amidine nitroxides bearing various functional groups (e.g., such as CN, N3, NH2, COOEt) to be synthesized. A series of nitroxides obtained through the Staudinger/intermolecular aza-Wittig reaction of the azido derivative is also described. The nitroxides synthesized here were found to have pH-dependent two-component EPR spectra indicative of a slow, on the EPR time scale, R ⇆ RH+ chemical exchange, and pKa values ranging from 2.8 to 12.5 units. The guanidine derivatives synthesized in this work show the highest pKa values (pKa = 10.2 and 12.5, respectively) ever reported for the nitroxide pH-probes of a “basic type”.