Structure–Band Gap Relationships in Hexagonal Polytypes and Low-Dimensional Structures of Hybrid Tin Iodide Perovskites
datasetposted on 20.12.2016, 16:19 authored by Constantinos C. Stoumpos, Lingling Mao, Christos D. Malliakas, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis
The present study deals with the structural characterization and classification of the novel compounds 1–8 into perovskite subclasses and proceeds in extracting the structure–band gap relationships between them. The compounds were obtained from the employment of small, 3–5-atom-wide organic ammonium ions seeking to discover new perovskite-like compounds. The compounds reported here adopt unique or rare structure types akin to the prototype structure perovskite. When trimethylammonium (TMA) was employed, we obtained TMASnI3 (1), which is our reference compound for a “perovskitoid” structure of face-sharing octahedra. The compounds EASnI3 (2b), GASnI3 (3a), ACASnI3 (4), and IMSnI3 (5) obtained from the use of ethylammonium (EA), guanidinium (GA), acetamidinium (ACA), and imidazolium (IM) cations, respectively, represent the first entries of the so-called “hexagonal perovskite polytypes” in the hybrid halide perovskite library. The hexagonal perovskites define a new family of hybrid halide perovskites with a crystal structure that emerges from a blend of corner- and face-sharing octahedral connections in various proportions. The small organic cations can also stabilize a second structural type characterized by a crystal lattice with reduced dimensionality. These compounds include the two-dimensional (2D) perovskites GA2SnI4 (3b) and IPA3Sn2I7 (6b) and the one-dimensional (1D) perovskite IPA3SnI5 (6a). The known 2D perovskite BA2MASn2I7 (7) and the related all-inorganic 1D perovskite “RbSnF2I” (8) have also been synthesized. All compounds have been identified as medium-to-wide-band-gap semiconductors in the range of Eg = 1.90–2.40 eV, with the band gap progressively decreasing with increased corner-sharing functionality and increased torsion angle in the octahedral connectivity.
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structure typesband gapIMSnI 3prototype structure perovskiteface-sharing octahedral connections2 D perovskite BA 2 MASn 2compounds EASnI 3halide perovskitesperovskite IPA 3 SnI 5octahedral connectivitycorner-sharing functionalityperovskite subclassesreference compoundACATMASnI 3Low-Dimensional StructuresIPA 3 Sn 2Hexagonal Polytypes3 bammonium ions6 bperovskites GA 2 SnI 4face-sharing octahedracrystal structurehalide perovskite libraryperovskite-like compoundsmedium-to-wide-band-gap semiconductorsstudy dealsHybrid Tin Iodide PerovskitesE gcrystal latticetorsion angle