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Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, and In Vivo Antinociceptive Effects of Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Agonists

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posted on 19.12.2017, 00:00 by Riccardo Petrelli, Mirko Scortichini, Carmela Belardo, Serena Boccella, Livio Luongo, Fabio Capone, Sonja Kachler, Patrizia Vita, Fabio Del Bello, Sabatino Maione, Antonio Lavecchia, Karl-Norbert Klotz, Loredana Cappellacci
Our previous work discovered that combining the appropriate 5′- and N6-substitution in adenosine derivatives leads to the highly selective human A1 adenosine receptor (hA1AR) agonists or highly potent dual hA1AR agonists and hA3AR antagonists. In order to explore novel dual adenosine receptor ligands, a series of N6-substituted-5′-pyrazolyl-adenosine and 2-chloro-adenosine derivatives were synthesized and assayed in vitro at all ARs. The N6-(±)-endo-norbornyl derivative 12 was the most potent and selective at A1AR and effective as an analgesic in formalin test in mice, but none of the 5′-pyrazolyl series compounds showed a dual behavior at hA1 and hA3AR. Molecular modeling studies rationalized the structure–activity relationships and the selectivity profiles of the new series of A1AR agonists. Interestingly, an unexpected inverted binding mode of the N6-tetrahydrofuranyl derivative 14 was hypothesized to explain its low affinity at A1AR.