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Scalable Sonochemical Synthetic Strategy for Pyrazolo[1,5‑a]pyridine Derivatives: First Catalyst-Free Concerted [3 + 2] Cycloaddition of Alkyne and Alkene Derivatives to 2‑Imino‑1H‑pyridin-1-amines

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posted on 2019-04-19, 16:34 authored by Hamada Mohamed Ibrahim, Haider Behbehani, Noha S. Mostafa
A highly efficient and convenient one-pot sonochemical synthetic strategy has been sophisticated for synthesizing a novel class of polysubstituted pyrazolo­[1,5-a]­pyridines via [3 + 2] cycloaddition of dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates, ethyl propiolate, and alkenes to 2-imino-1H-pyridin-1-amines under catalyst-free conditions. A series of uniquely substituted pyrazolo­[1,5-a]­pyridines has been synthesized with a very good to excellent yield, and the mechanistic pathway that involves a [3 + 2] annulation process was also proposed. In this study, several spectroscopic tools of analyses were employed for structure elucidation, and the X-ray single-crystal technique was utilized to confirm the proposed mechanism and the regioselectivity.