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Role of Tissue Transglutaminase Catalytic and Guanosine Triphosphate-Binding Domains in Renal Cell Carcinoma Progression

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posted on 20.10.2020, 15:06 by Burge Ulukan, Ajna Bihorac, Tarik Sipahioglu, Robert Kiraly, Laszlo Fesus, Dilek Telci
Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional protein that can act as a cross-linking enzyme, GTPase/ATPase, protein kinase, and protein disulfide isomerase. TG2 is involved in cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and growth, as well as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our previous findings indicate that the increased expression of TG2 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) results in tumor metastasis with a significant decrease in disease- and cancer-specific survival outcome. Given the importance of the prometastatic activity of TG2 in RCC, in the present study, we aim to investigate the relative contribution of TG2’s transamidase and guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding/GTPase activity in the cell migration, invasion, EMT, and cancer stemness of RCC. For this purpose, the mouse RCC cell line RenCa was transduced with wild-type-TG2 (wt-TG2), GTP-binding deficient-form TG2-R580A, transamidase-deficient form with low GTP-binding affinity TG2-C277S, and transamidase-inactive form TG2-W241A. Our results suggested that predominantly, GTP-binding activity of TG2 is responsible for cell migration and invasion. In addition, CD marker analysis and spheroid assay confirmed that GTP binding/GTPase activity of TG2 is important in the maintenance of mesenchymal character and the cancer stem cell profile. These findings support a prometastatic role for TG2 in RCC that is dependent on the GTP binding/GTPase activity of the enzyme.