American Chemical Society
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Rational Design of Pore Size and Functionality in a Series of Isoreticular Zwitterionic Metal–Organic Frameworks

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posted on 2018-10-25, 00:00 authored by Darpandeep Aulakh, Timur Islamoglu, Veronica F. Bagundes, Juby R. Varghese, Kyle Duell, Monu Joy, Simon J. Teat, Omar K. Farha, Mario Wriedt
The isoreticular expansion and functionalization of charged-polarized porosity has been systematically explored by the rational design of 11 isostructural zwitterionic metal–organic frameworks (ZW-MOFs). This extended series of general structural composition {[M3F­(L1)3(L2)1.5]·guests}n was prepared by employing the solvothermal reaction of Co and Ni tetrafluoroborates with a binary ligand system composed of zwitterionic pyridinium derivatives and traditional functionalized ditopic carboxylate auxiliary ligands (HL1·Cl = 1-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4′-bipyridinium chloride, Hcpb·Cl; or 1-(4-carboxyphenyl-3-hydroxyphenyl)-4,4′-bipyridinium chloride, Hchpb·Cl; and H2L2 = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, H2bdc; 2-aminobenzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, H2abdc; 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, H2dhbdc; biphenyl-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid, H2bpdc; or stilbene-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid, H2sdc). Single-crystal structure analyses revealed cubic crystal symmetry (I-43m, a = 31–36 Å) with a 3D pore system of significant void space (73–81%). The pore system features three types of pores being systematically tunable in size ranging from 17.4 to 18.8 Å (pore I), 8.2 to 12.8 Å (pore II), and 4.8 to 10.4 Å (pore III) by the choice of auxiliary ligands. All members of this series have noninterpenetrating structures and exhibit robust architectures, as evidenced by their permanent porosity and high thermal stability (up to 300 °C). The structural integrity and specific surface areas could be systematically optimized using supercritical CO2 exchange methods for framework activation resulting in BET surface areas ranging from 1250 to 2250 m2/g. Most interestingly, as a structural landmark, we found the pore surfaces lined with charge gradients employed by the pyridinium ligands. This key feature results in significant adsorption of carbon dioxide and methane which is attributed to polarization effects. With this contribution we pioneer the reticulation of pyridinium building blocks into extended zwitterionic networks in which specific properties can be targeted.