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Profiling How the Gut Microbiome Modulates Host Xenobiotic Metabolism in Response to Benzo[a]pyrene and 1‑Nitropyrene Exposure

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posted on 29.03.2022, 11:41 authored by Whitney L. Garcia, Carson J. Miller, Gerard X. Lomas, Kari A. Gaither, Kimberly J. Tyrrell, Jordan N. Smith, Kristoffer R. Brandvold, Aaron T. Wright
The gut microbiome is a key contributor to xenobiotic metabolism. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an abundant class of environmental contaminants that have varying levels of carcinogenicity depending on their individual structures. Little is known about how the gut microbiome affects the rates of PAH metabolism. This study sought to determine the role that the gut microbiome has in determining the various aspects of metabolism in the liver, before and after exposure to two structurally different PAHs, benzo­[a]­pyrene and 1-nitropyrene. Following exposures, the metabolic rates of PAH metabolism were measured, and activity-based protein profiling was performed. We observed differences in PAH metabolism rates between germ-free and conventional mice under both unexposed and exposed conditions. Our activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) analysis showed that, under unexposed conditions, there were only minor differences in total P450 activity in germ-free mice relative to conventional mice. However, we observed distinct activity profiles in response to corn oil vehicle and PAH treatment, primarily in the case of 1-NP treatment. This study revealed that the repertoire of active P450s in the liver is impacted by the presence of the gut microbiome, which modifies PAH metabolism in a substrate-specific fashion.

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