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Organic Semiconducting Alloys with Tunable Energy Levels

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posted on 27.02.2019, 00:00 by Jin-Hu Dou, Zhi-Ao Yu, Jun Zhang, Yu-Qing Zheng, Ze-Fan Yao, Zeyi Tu, Xinchang Wang, Shiliang Huang, Chengwen Liu, Junliang Sun, Yuanping Yi, Xiaoyu Cao, Yiqin Gao, Jie-Yu Wang, Jian Pei
Continuous band structure tuning, e.g., doping with different atoms, is one of the most important features of inorganic semiconductors. However, this can hardly be realized in organic semicondutors. Here, we report the first example of fine-tuning organic semiconductor band structures by alloying structurally similar derivatives into one single phase. By incorporating halogen atoms on different positions of the backbone, BDOPV derivatives with complementary intramolecular or intermolecular charge distributions were obtained. To maximize the Coloumbic attractive interactions and minimize repulsive interactions, they form antiparallel cofacial stacking in monocomponent or in alloy single crystals, resulting in efficient π orbital overlap. Benefiting from self-assembly induced solid state “olefin metathesis” reaction, it was observed, for the first time, that three BDOPV derivatives cocrystallized in one single crystal. Molecules with different energy levels serve like the dopants in inorganic semiconductors. Consequently, as the total number of halogen atoms increased, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels of the alloy single crystals decreased monotonously in the range from −5.94 to −6.96 eV and −4.19 to −4.48 eV, respectively.