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Nanoprotein Interaction Atlas Reveals the Transport Pathway of Gold Nanoparticles across Epithelium and Its Association with Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

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posted on 21.10.2021, 15:43 authored by Jian Zhang, Mengmeng Qin, Dan Yang, Lan Yuan, Xiajuan Zou, Wenbing Dai, Hua Zhang, Xueqing Wang, Bing He, Qiang Zhang
A tremendous number of proteins participate in the delivery and transport process of nanomedicines. Nanoprotein interactions not only mediate drug delivery but also determine drug safety. In the field of biomedical sciences, the epithelial barrier is a huge challenge for gastrointestinal, intratracheal, intranasal, vaginal, and intrauterine delivery of nanomedicines. However, the molecular mechanisms by which nanomedicines cross tissue or cell barriers are not well understood. Here, we explored the nanoprotein interactions during the transcytosis of nanoparticles across the epithelial barrier by focusing on the transport pathway and mechanisms. Due to the limitations of traditional methods in resolving nanoprotein interactions, we developed a backward analysis strategy. By simultaneously analyzing the protein corona on the particle surface and the cellular response after transcytosis, we integrated the information on both directly and indirectly interacting proteins, establishing a holistic nanoprotein interaction atlas. It revealed the dominant role of the EV/ER/Golgi/SV pathway in the transcytosis of nanoparticles. More importantly, based on the established atlas, we discovered the association of Wnt/β-catenin signaling with nanoparticle transportation. The endocytosis for entering cells and exocytosis/transcytosis for leaving cells were differently regulated by the Wnt pathway. Notably, this regulatory effect was dependent on the particle size. Bigger nanoparticles departed from cells through the exocytosis pathway faster because of the specific bridging effect on the Wnt-Frizzled interaction and the feedback loop construction based on the exosomes. This mechanism gives an interpretation at the molecular level to the transcytosis dilemma of larger nanoparticles. Moreover, the size-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway provides a promising regulatory and screening platform for the transportation of different nanomedicines through the epithelial barrier.