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Mechanochemical Production of Halogen-Bonded Solids Featuring PO···I–C Motifs and Characterization via X‑ray Diffraction, Solid-State Multinuclear Magnetic Resonance, and Density Functional Theory

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posted on 17.12.2015, 10:57 authored by Yijue Xu, Jasmine Viger-Gravel, Ilia Korobkov, David L. Bryce
A series of phosphine oxide-iodofluorobenzene cocrystals featuring relatively strongly halogen-bonded PO···I–C motifs has been prepared mechanochemically and characterized by 31P and 17O solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Direct insights were obtained into the correlation between several NMR observables (chemical shift tensors, electric field gradient tensors, and J(31P, 17O) coupling) and the molecular and electronic structure of the halogen bonds. The 31P isotropic chemical shift and span, the 17O quadrupolar coupling constant and asymmetry parameter, as well as J(31P, 17O) coupling can be strong indicators of the presence of a halogen bond. Density functional theory calculations using periodic boundary conditions have revealed several notable trends. For example, the oxygen isotropic chemical shift and J(31P, 17O) values were found to correlate linearly with the strength of the halogen bond. An additional natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) investigation shows that the three main contributions to J(31P, 17O) coupling are the PO bonding orbitals, the oxygen lone pair orbital, and oxygen core orbitals, and that they all together determine the overall trend observed experimentally. Further NLMO analysis revealed a linear correlation between the contribution of the oxygen pz lone pair orbital to the quadrupolar coupling constant and the strength of the halogen bond. This work, encompassing the first 17O SSNMR studies of halogen bonds, demonstrates how NMR observables provide a useful means to characterize halogen bonds and also improve our understanding of the correlation between the electronic structure of the halogen bond and NMR properties.