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Mechanistic Investigation into the Regio-Controllable Hydroallylations of Alkynes with Allylborons under Pd-Based Synergetic Catalyses

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posted on 2023-03-17, 15:04 authored by Lingjun Liu, Yuxia Liu, Qiao Wu, Xufang Zhao, Yulin Li, Guang Chen, Siwei Bi
Density functional theory calculations were employed to investigate the Pd-catalyzed regio-selective hydroallylations of alkynes with allylborons: cooperation of Cu­(OAc)2 and dppe resulting in 1,4-dienes while combination of AdCO2H and PCy3 leading to 1,5-dienes. A unified rationalization mechanism called “Lewis-acid–base-interaction promoted deprotonation/3,3-rearrangement” was proposed. Compared with the commonly reported metathesis pathway to only afford the metal-allyl intermediate, in the newly established mechanism, an additional Brønsted acid (as an initiator of the Pd0 oxidative addition) is generated by the interaction of the allylboron (Lewis acid) B atom with the nBuOH (Lewis base) O atom, and subsequent 3,3-rearrangement ensures the thermodynamic feasibility of the reaction. In addition, it was found that excess Cu­(OAc)2 plays two potential roles in the oxidative addition/alkyne insertion: (i) the participation of one AcO of Cu­(OAc)2 ensures a large orbital overlap between the migrating H and Pd atoms, facilitating the formal AcO–H cleavage and (ii) the extra (OAc)2Cu···O­(carboxyl) σ-coordination indirectly contributes to the (Me)­CC­(Ph) insertion into the Pd–H bond. Further analysis showed that the origin of the regioselectivity is closely related to the employed phosphorus ligand. These revealed results, which have been overlooked in the previous documents, would aid the development of new related catalytic reactions.

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