Mechanisms of Catalyst Poisoning in Palladium-Catalyzed Cyanation of Haloarenes. Remarkably Facile C−N Bond Activation in the [(Ph3P)4Pd]/[Bu4N]+ CN- System
datasetposted on 09.04.2008 by Stefan Erhardt, Vladimir V. Grushin, Alison H. Kilpatrick, Stuart A. Macgregor, William J. Marshall, D. Christopher Roe
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Reaction paths leading to palladium catalyst deactivation during cyanation of haloarenes (eq 1) have been identified and studied. Each key step of the catalytic loop (Scheme ) can be disrupted by excess cyanide, including ArX oxidative addition, X/CN exchange, and ArCN reductive elimination. The catalytic reaction is terminated via the facile formation of inactive [(CN)4Pd]2-, [(CN)3PdH]2-, and [(CN)3PdAr]2-. Moisture is particularly harmful to the catalysis because of facile CN- hydrolysis to HCN that is highly reactive toward Pd(0). Depending on conditions, the reaction of [(Ph3P)4Pd] with HCN in the presence of extra CN- can give rise to [(CN)4Pd]2- and/or the remarkably stable new hydride [(CN)3PdH]2- (NMR, X-ray). The X/CN exchange and reductive elimination steps are vulnerable to excess CN- because of facile phosphine displacement leading to stable [(CN)3PdAr]2- that can undergo ArCN reductive elimination only in the absence of extra CN-. When a quaternary ammonium cation such as [Bu4N]+ is used as a phase-transfer agent for the cyanation reaction, C−N bond cleavage in the cation can occur via two different processes. In the presence of trace water, CN- hydrolysis yields HCN that reacts with Pd(0) to give [(CN)3PdH]2-. This also releases highly active OH- that causes Hofmann elimination of [Bu4N]+ to give Bu3N, 1-butene, and water. This decomposition mode is therefore catalytic in H2O. Under anhydrous conditions, the formation of a new species, [(CN)3PdBu]2-, is observed, and experimental studies suggest that electron-rich mixed cyano phosphine Pd(0) species are responsible for this unusual reaction. A combination of experimental (kinetics, labeling) and computational studies demonstrate that in this case C−N activation occurs via an SN2-type displacement of amine and rule out alternative 3-center C−N oxidative addition or Hofmann elimination processes.