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Machine Learning Adaptive Basis Sets for Efficient Large Scale Density Functional Theory Simulation

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posted on 29.06.2018, 00:00 by Ole Schütt, Joost VandeVondele
It is chemically intuitive that an optimal atom centered basis set must adapt to its atomic environment, for example by polarizing toward nearby atoms. Adaptive basis sets of small size can be significantly more accurate than traditional atom centered basis sets of the same size. The small size and well conditioned nature of these basis sets leads to large saving in computational cost, in particular in a linear scaling framework. Here, it is shown that machine learning can be used to predict such adaptive basis sets using local geometrical information only. As a result, various properties of standard DFT calculations can be easily obtained at much lower costs, including nuclear gradients. In our approach, a rotationally invariant parametrization of the basis is obtained by employing a potential anchored on neighboring atoms to ultimately construct a rotation matrix that turns a traditional atom centered basis set into a suitable adaptive basis set. The method is demonstrated using MD simulations of liquid water, where it is shown that minimal basis sets yield structural properties in fair agreement with basis set converged results, while reducing the computational cost in the best case by a factor of 200 and the required flops by 4 orders of magnitude. Already a very small training set yields satisfactory results as the variational nature of the method provides robustness.