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Involvement of Pazopanib and Sunitinib Aldehyde Reactive Metabolites in Toxicity and Drug–Drug Interactions in Vitro and in Patient Samples

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posted on 26.09.2019, 19:16 by Marie-Noëlle Paludetto, Jean-Luc Stigliani, Anne Robert, Vania Bernardes-Génisson, Etienne Chatelut, Florent Puisset, Cécile Arellano
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are targeted anticancer drugs that have been successfully developed over the past 2 decades. To date, many of them (around 70%) require warnings for liver injury and five of them, including pazopanib and sunitinib, have Black Box Warning (BBW) labels. Although TKI-induced hepatotoxicity is the first cause of drug failures in clinical trials, BBW labels, and market withdrawals, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. However, the recent discovery of new reactive metabolites (RM) with aldehyde structures during pazopanib and sunitinib metabolism offers new perspectives for investigating their involvement in the toxicity of these two TKI. These hard electrophiles have a high reactivity potential toward proteins and are thought to be responsible for cytochrome P450 inactivation, drug–drug interactions (DDI), and liver toxicity. We report here, for the first time, the presence of these aldehyde RM in human plasma samples obtained during drug monitoring. Docking experiments in the CYP3A4 active site were performed and showed that pazopanib and sunitinib fitting in the catalytic site are in accordance with their regioselective oxidation to aldehydes. They also suggested that aldehyde RM may react with lysine and arginine residues. Based on these results, we studied the reactivity of the aldehyde RM toward lysine and arginine residues as potential targets on the protein framework to better understand how these RM could be involved in liver toxicity and drug–drug interactions. Adduct formation with different hepatic and plasma proteins was investigated by LC-MS/MS, and adducts between pazopanib or sunitinib aldehyde derivatives and lysine residues on both CYP3A4 and plasma proteins were indeed shown for the first time.