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Interplay between Electronic Correlation and Metal–Ligand Delocalization in the Spectroscopy of Transition Metal Compounds: Case Study on a Series of Planar Cu2+ Complexes

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posted on 22.10.2018 by Emmanuel Giner, David P. Tew, Yann Garniron, Ali Alavi
We present a comprehensive theoretical study of the physical phenomena that determine the relative energies of three of the lowest electronic states of each of the square-planar copper complexes [CuCl4]2–, [Cu­(NH3)4]2+, and [Cu­(H2O)4]2+ and present a detailed analysis of the extent to which truncated configuration interaction (CI) and coupled cluster (CC) theories succeed in predicing the excitation energies. We find that ligand–metal charge transfer (CT) single excitations play a crucial role in the correct determination of the properties of these systems, even though the first impact of these CT on the energetics of these systems appears at fourth-order in perturbation theory. We provide a minimal selected CI space for describing these systems with multireference theories and use a high-order perturbation theory analysis within this space to derive a simple and general physical picture for the LMCT process. We find that coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy differences agree very well with near full CI values even though the D1 diagnostics are large, which casts doubt on the usefulness of single-amplitude-based multireference diagnostics. Configuration interaction singles and doubles (CISD) severely underestimates the excitation energies, and the failure is a direct consequence of the size-inconsisency errors in CISD. Finally, we present reference values for the energy differences computed using explicitly correlated CCSD­(T) and BCCD­(T) theory.