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Insights into Hydrate Formation and Stability of Morphinanes from a Combination of Experimental and Computational Approaches

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posted on 2014-09-02, 00:00 authored by Doris E. Braun, Thomas Gelbrich, Volker Kahlenberg, Ulrich J. Griesser
Morphine, codeine, and ethylmorphine are important drug compounds whose free bases and hydrochloride salts form stable hydrates. These compounds were used to systematically investigate the influence of the type of functional groups, the role of water molecules, and the Cl counterion on molecular aggregation and solid state properties. Five new crystal structures have been determined. Additionally, structure models for anhydrous ethylmorphine and morphine hydrochloride dihydrate, two phases existing only in a very limited humidity range, are proposed on the basis of computational dehydration modeling. These match the experimental powder X-ray diffraction patterns and the structural information derived from infrared spectroscopy. All 12 structurally characterized morphinane forms (including structures from the Cambridge Structural Database) crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P212121. Hydrate formation results in higher dimensional hydrogen bond networks. The salt structures of the different compounds exhibit only little structural variation. Anhydrous polymorphs were detected for all compounds except ethylmorphine (one anhydrate) and its hydrochloride salt (no anhydrate). Morphine HCl forms a trihydrate and dihydrate. Differential scanning and isothermal calorimetry were employed to estimate the heat of the hydrate ↔ anhydrate phase transformations, indicating an enthalpic stabilization of the respective hydrate of 5.7 to 25.6 kJ mol–1 relative to the most stable anhydrate. These results are in qualitative agreement with static 0 K lattice energy calculations for all systems except morphine hydrochloride, showing the need for further improvements in quantitative thermodynamic prediction of hydrates having water···water interactions. Thus, the combination of a variety of experimental techniques, covering temperature- and moisture-dependent stability, and computational modeling allowed us to generate sufficient kinetic, thermodynamic and structural information to understand the principles of hydrate formation of the model compounds. This approach also led to the detection of several new crystal forms of the investigated morphinanes.