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Highly Luminescent Lanthanide Complexes of 1-Hydroxy-2-pyridinones

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posted on 21.04.2008, 00:00 by Evan G. Moore, Jide Xu, Christoph J. Jocher, Ingrid Castro-Rodriguez, Kenneth N. Raymond
The synthesis, X-ray structure, stability, and photophysical properties of several trivalent lanthanide complexes formed from two differing bis-bidentate ligands incorporating either alkyl or alkyl ether linkages and featuring the 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) chelate group in complex with Eu(III), Sm(III), and Gd(III) are reported. The Eu(III) complexes are among some of the best examples, pairing highly efficient emission (ΦtotEu ∼ 21.5%) with high stability (pEu ∼ 18.6) in aqueous solution, and are excellent candidates for use in biological assays. A comparison of the observed behavior of the complexes with differing backbone linkages shows remarkable similarities, both in stability and photophysical properties. Low temperature photophysical measurements for a Gd(III) complex were also used to gain insight into the electronic structure and were found to agree with corresponding time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for a model complex. A comparison of the high resolution Eu(III) emission spectra in solution and from single crystals also revealed a more symmetric coordination geometry about the metal ion in solution due to dynamic rotation of the observed solid state structure.