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Electrically-Transduced Chemical Sensors Based on Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials

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posted on 03.01.2019, 15:34 authored by Zheng Meng, Robert M. Stolz, Lukasz Mendecki, Katherine A. Mirica
Electrically–transduced sensors, with their simplicity and compatibility with standard electronic technologies, produce signals that can be efficiently acquired, processed, stored, and analyzed. Two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including graphene, phosphorene (BP), transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), and others, have proven to be attractive for the fabrication of high–performance electrically-transduced chemical sensors due to their remarkable electronic and physical properties originating from their 2D structure. This review highlights the advances in electrically-transduced chemical sensing that rely on 2D materials. The structural components of such sensors are described, and the underlying operating principles for different types of architectures are discussed. The structural features, electronic properties, and surface chemistry of 2D nanostructures that dictate their sensing performance are reviewed. Key advances in the application of 2D materials, from both a historical and analytical perspective, are summarized for four different groups of analytes: gases, volatile compounds, ions, and biomolecules. The sensing performance is discussed in the context of the molecular design, structure–property relationships, and device fabrication technology. The outlook of challenges and opportunities for 2D nanomaterials for the future development of electrically-transduced sensors is also presented.